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Ready, Set, Secure

Got the privilege to be a guest on the recent Set Solutions Information Security podcast -- Ready, Set, Secure.  Talking with Michael Farnum (Chief Technology Officer), Nick DiPasquale (Senior Security Solutions Architect), and John Dearman (Senior Penetration Testing Consultant) about recent news and discuss new trends in hacking and penetration testing.

Bypassing CAPTCHA with Visually-Impaired Robots

As many of you have probably noticed, we rely heavily on bot automation for a lot of the testing that we do at Sociosploit.  And occasionally, we run into sites that leverage CAPTCHA ("Completely Automated Public Turing Test To Tell Computers and Humans Apart") controls to prevent bot automation.   Even if you aren't familiar with the name, you've likely encountered these before.
While there are some other vendors who develop CAPTCHAs, Google is currently the leader in CAPTCHA technology.  They currently support 2 products (reCAPTCHA v2 and v3).  As v3 natively only functions as a detective control, I focused my efforts more on identifying ways to possibly bypass reCAPTCHA v2 (which functions more as a preventative control).
How reCAPTCHA v2 WorksreCAPTCHA v2 starts with a simple checkbox, and evaluates the behavior of the user when clicking it.  While I haven't dissected the underlying operations, I assume this part of the test likely makes determinations about t…

Sociosploit at HouSecCon

Recently had the privilege to present some of our latest projects at HouSecCon.  Within the presentation, I cover the following:

The use of software robotics in social media hackingLinkedIn Scraper - To generate lists of target emails for phishing and spamTwittersploit - Remote Access Trojan with Command and Control over TwitterOkStupid and Plenty of Phish - Dating Bots for Social Engineering Check out the video here:

OkStupid and Plenty of Phish

It recently occurred to me that many of the classic "password recovery" questions, while personal in nature, are exactly the types of questions you would ask when attempting to better get to know someone -- such as in a dating context.  With this in mind, I decided to explore how online dating services could potentially be used to target victims and then subsequently get access to their online services by discovering the answer(s) to their password recovery questions.

How we built the bot Went through quite a few considerations on how I wanted to approach this.  I eventually stumbled upon a site called PersonalityForge, which seems to be this entire geek sub-culture of people who have coded chat bots with the intent to make them as real as possible.  While nowhere near perfect, I did manage to find a "flirty" female chat bot that I hoped would do the trick.  I introduce to you, Amanda20...

How it works? Using the Python mechanize library, I was able to use browsing e…

Twitter Remote Access Trojan (Twittersploit)

Developed a malware sample that leverages Twitter direct messaging as a channel for command and control.
Web Service Command and Control Have recently been structuring a lot of my penetration testing efforts around the MITRE ATT&CK framework. One technique that specifically caught my attention while doing an assessment based on the Command & Control (C&C) section was the T1102 - Web Service C&C technique. It references multiple malware samples that leveraged Twitter as a C&C channel. These samples included: CozyCarHAMMERTOSSMiniDukeOnionDuke This technique proved to be uniquely effective for a few reasons: Traditional C&C Channels Blocked - Many organizations are now taking a (quasi) white-listing approach to URL filtering (i.e. blocking unclassified site categories), thereby blocking hastily established C&C channels over HTTP(S)Web Service Availability - More and more organizations are opening up corporate infrastructure to social media web services (such as…

LinkedIn Phishing Email Enumeration

Using an automated web bot, it is possible to scrape personnel names and then translate those names into emails that can be used in phishing campaigns. Proof of concept uploaded to Github.
Creating the LinkedIn Web Bot While testing, it was identified that LinkedIn will temporarily disable accounts suspected of employing bot automation (and presumably with enough violations, could result in permanent deletion of account).
The team found that by rate-limiting requests at varied intervals and limiting total daily requests to less that 800, we were able to use automated bots on the network without having the accounts suspended. Bot Operations The proof of concept bot does the following: Logs into LinkedIn using an existing accountSearches the supplied company nameNarrows the search to return "People" objectsOpens Advanced Search options, and selects only individuals that currently work at the companyProgressively clicks through 100 pages of profiles and gathers namesConverts the …

Building Bots with Mechanize and Selenium

The Sociosploit team conducts much of its research into the exploitation of social media using custom built bots. On occasion, the team will use public APIs (Application Programming Interfaces), but more often than not, these do not provide the same level of exploitative capabilities that could be achieved through browser automation. So to achieve this end, the Sociosploit team primarily uses a combination of two different Python libraries for building web bots for research. Each of the libraries have their own advantages and disadvantages. These libraries include:
Very lightweight, portable, and requires minimal resourcesEasy to initially configure and installCuts down on superfluous requests (due to absense of JavaScript)Cons:
Does not handle JavaScript or client-side functionalityTroubleshooting is done exclusively in textSeleniumPros:
Operations are executed in browser, making JavaScript rendering and manipulation easyVisibility of browser simplifies troubleshootingCon…